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Your character has been seriously hit in one or both of your eyes. This affects your Perception.”— In-game description
Attacks to the eye have a added critical chance which often requires the luck roll that if failed, blinds. Blindness lowers your accuracy, however the target for eyes is not in Fallout 3 or Fallout: New Vegas. Blindness affects your perception and most of the time the critical effect is death. The eyes are the hardest limb to hit, though.
Eye Damage in Fallout 2 cannot be healed by any of the in-game doctors, it requires a moderate level of the doctor skill and a doctors bag or equivalent.
For More information on crippled body parts, see Crippled Limbs