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Weapon mods allow you to customize most basic weapons and thus create weapons more suited for specific purposes.
Weapon mods by themselves serve no function, but once attached to their specified weapon will change the characteristics, look and/or function to create a distinct variant. The mods range from scopes and silencers to extended mags and several in-between. While you are not limited to the amount of mods you can apply to a single weapon, you are limited to one of each type per single weapon. Once a weapon mod is attached to a weapon it can not be removed and remains a permanent feature of that weapon. While some mods (like an extended magazine) are almost always beneficial, others (like a scope) have both pros and cons.